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Lingayat Special Words,Idioms


Glossary of Special Words, Idioms in Kannada and their meaning

Aachara Almost similar to 'practice'.
Aayata Acceptance. Adoption
Advaita Non-dual
Agami/Agamy Karma Forthcoming karma
Aghori A religious sect that observed 'ferocious' practices.
Agni Fire
Aikya Union, being one with. Sixth and final stage in the development of a devotee where he is united with god.
Amaraneethi One of the sixty three ancients in the kingdom of chola; a cloth merchant; once shiva came to him in the form of an old man and kept his loin cloth with amaraneethi which disappeared mysteriously; when the weight of clothes offered by the merchants didn't equal to the loin cloth he offered himself.
Amba Amba In kannada onomatopoeic sound of calf's calls.
Anga, Amga Body
Anubhaava Though the term means mysticism, in vachana texts it also denotes sharing of ideas and discussion among the like minded sharanas.
Anubhava Mantapa Religious council found by guru basava, a platform for discussion of human values by sharanas.
Apad dharma The duties of all during crisis
Aranyaka Parts of vedas
Arjun One of the heroes in the epic mahabharata.
Ashprushya Untouchable
Ashrama Hindu stages of life (brahmchartya, grahasthya, vanaprasthya and sanyasa), the term is also used to refer to the place of residence of rishis or saints.
Astavarana Eight coverings of lingayath religion, guru, linga, jangama, vibhuti, rudrakshi, mantra, padodaka and prasada.
Asura Demon, here the word refers to ravana, the antagonist of the ramayana.
Atharva Veda First of four veda
Atman Soul
Atmavimarsh Self-realization
Badarikaa Kshetra A pilgrimage centre in the himalayas.
Bali A kshatriya king. Vishnu came to him in the form of vaamana, a dwarf, and asked for three feet of earth and enveloped the whole of the earth and sky with two feet; for the remaining one feet placed his foot on bali's head and pushed him down to the nether world.
Balindra See bali.
Benaka Kannada word for lord ganesha.
Bhaageerathi River ganga.
Bhagavdgita Preaching to arjuna by sri krishna at battle field of mahabharata.
Bhakta Devotee.
Bhakti Devotion. Literally it means 'divided' and hence refers to a state in which a devotee is separated from god and yearns to unite with god. Amritagana, devagana: names of metrical feet that are considered auspicious.
Bherunda A mythological bird with two heads and one body.
Bhoga Enjoyment/lust
Bijjala A king belonging to kalachuri dynasty. Basavanna was his finance minister.
Brahmana A superior most class of people under hindu religion and verna philosophy.
Brahmeti Sin of killing a brahmin.
Chandrayudha A weapon in the shape of crescent.
Chaudeshwari A ferocious goddess.
Chintamani A pearl, which is capable to give anything if think for it (comes in purana)
Chola A famous emperor from tamilnadu, a devotee of shiva. As the legend goes shiva ate food with him everyday. Chola became arrogant and shiva to break his arrogance took rice-water in the house of devotee chennayya who cared the horses of the emperor. Bowing to chennayya the emperor became humble.
Choliyakka A prostitute in bhimeshwara in andhrapradesh, who was a great devotee. She offered food to shiva. The king accused her of stealing a gold plate and about to kill her, shiva appeared and saved her.
Daasoha Offering; offering body to guru, mind to linga and wealth to jangama. It is a principle which asserts that an individual has no claim on wealth and only god or society has the ownership. Literally means 'i submit to that' and is a stance that seems different from and continuation of soham.
Dalit Person belonging to the lower caste. Untouchable.
Dana Gift or alms, donation
Dasooha Contributing the part of earning for the benefit of society thinking that i am the servent and i am serving to society/guru what god has given me. Not thinking that i am the rich and i am donating it to the socieyt. This is the main difference between dana and dasoha.
Deekshe A religious ceremony by which a person is initiated into lingayathism with a personal linga which he can tie around his neck.
Deva Deity. God.
Devalaya Temple. Worshipping place.
Dharma Mode of life or code of conduct.
Dharma-Shastra Scripture of religion,
Durvaasa A sage from lower strata of society. Eight kinds of arrogance: ashtamada caste, valor, wealth, youth, beauty, education, kingdom and austerity
Dvaita Dual doctrine about reality (creator).
Eight Kinds Of Worship Worshiping linga with water, gandha (fragrance), akshata (rice made sacred), pushpa (flower), dhupa (incense), deepa (lamps), naivaidya (food offering) and thambula (beetle leaves araca and lime).
Epic By Vyaasa The mahabharata.
Five Elements Earth, water, fire, air and sky.
Gayathri Japa Chanting of gaayathri mantra.
Gayatri mantra Popular hymn of hinduism.
Gokarna A well known sacred centre on the western sea shore of karnataka.
Gorava Devotees of mylaralinga.
Gruhastha Family holder, married person
Guna Character, quality.
Guru Suggest both a guiding personality and a principle of spiritual guidance; principle of knowledge and a knowledgeable person. , priest, teacher, preceptor
Holageri a place outside the village meant for the stay of untouchables
Ikya Oneness with god. Union with god.
Indra The master of all gods. Deity, one of trinity god.
Istalinga Symbolic representation of god, unique identity of lingayathism. Each one who wears the ishtalinga is the lingayat .
Itihasa History
Jadavastu Immovable material
Jambudveepa According to sacred mythology this is the first of seven islands of the earth. It is supposed to be spread around mount meru in salt ocean. As there is a jambu tree in that island it is called jambudveepa. India is supposed to be in the south of this island.
Jangama 1) a class of priests in lingayathism dedicated themselves for the good of the society with whom the excess earnings are to be deposited by everyone 2) moveable. 3) knowledge.
Jangama Literally 'that which moves.'refers to energetic and ever moving consciousness; personalized form of creative energy; social consciousness; also suggests a class.
Maruga, Pachche And Mudivaala Various flowers and fragrant leaves.
Jivan Mukta One who has transcended material life, the person attained salvation while living.
Jivatma Individual self
Jnana Knowledge
Kaama Mythological god of love and sex.
Kaayaka Literally means 'work done through the body'. Kaayaka is the chosen occupation of a sharana to earn livlihood. For detailed discussion see m.m. kalburgi's the luster of ruby in this book.
Kalikaadevi A goddess worshipped by artisans community.
Kalpavriksha A mythological tree that fulfills all wishes.
Kanchi A famous pilgrimage centre in tamilnaadu. Kankana: a ceremonious wrist band.
Kannappa One of the sixty three ancients who offered his eyes to cure the pain in the eyes of shiva linga.
Karana Sense
Karma Preordained life based upon the doings in the past life
Karmikamala Impurities of physical body
Karna A character in the epic mahabharata famous for giving whatever one asked of him.
Kaundinya Arisi from lower strata of society.
Kaurava One hundred brothers, the group of antagonists, in the epic mahabharata;
Kayaka Doing one's work with dedication and attain salvation
Kayaka Doing the work as divine duty, personal development and self bliss work and dashooha
Ketaara Kedar in gadwal region of the himalayas, sacred for worshipers of shiva.
Khachara King who loved his own daughter; the daughter took refuge in shiva linga.
Kriya Action, deed
Kshatriya Second superior category of people under hindu religion who are warriors
Kudalasangama A place of meeting point of two rivers where basaveshvara breathed his last.
Kudalasangamadeva Basaveshwara's pen name, which he uses in his vachanas.
Kumkum Saffron colored powder used as an auspicious mark on the foreheads, especially of married women.
Laxmi Goddess of wealth, the wife of vishnu; raavana-the antagonist in the epic ramayana.
Linga An oval shaped black stone symbolizing god shiva used for worship.
Linga Suggests both a physical object of worship and an emotion. As an object it is personal god, or ishtalinga of a devotee, installed linga or sthaavara linga. As an emotion it refers to ishtalinga of gross body (sthula sharira), praanalinga of subtle body(sukshma sharira) and bhaavalinga of causal body (kaarana sharira) of the devotee.
Lingayat A person who wears istalinga on his body and has become a member of the lingayath. Acceptor of istalinga willingly.
Lobha Lust
Maadiga, Holeya Kannada names of untouchable castes.
Mada Proud
Mahamane House of basaweshwara and a center for all kinds of intellectual activities.
Mahamane Literally means 'the great house.' it also refers to a place where sharanas gathered and engaged in spiritual and social discussion.
Mahat Brahman.
Mahesha Second of six sthalas. The devotee develops faith that god is the supreme lord and feels he partakes his qualities. Second stage of astavarana. One among trinity god.
Mana Mind
Mantra Hymn, chant.
Mari Masni A goddess who dwells in graveyards.
Marikavve A folk goddess.
Marujeevani A stick that is supposed to bring the dead back to life
Matsara Jealousy
Mayamala Impurities of illusion
Mayavada Illusionism
Moha One of the six enemies of man, obsessive desire. Delusion
Moksha Salvation.
Mylaara A folk deity in mylaara, in haveri, north karnataka. Dog is his vehicle. Goravas, devotees of mylaara bark like dogs to show their devotion.
Naarayana Vishnu.
Nambi One of the sixty three ancients, shiva acted as a pimp for him.
Nandana Divine garden of god indra.
Nandi Vehicle of shiva
Omkara Prefix word of god generator, organizer and destroyer, used in almost hymns. A, u, m i.e. Om.
Padodaka Water with which ishtalinga is washed and used as very sacred water.
Panchachara Five code of conducts of practices at lingayath religion. Lingachara, sadachara, shivachara, ganachara bhrutyachara.
Panchamrita A sweet dish made with milk, honey, sugar, banana and ghee.
Pandal A pandal is structure, either temporary or permanent, in a religious context.
Paapa Sin
Paramatma Supreme soul, god
Parashiva Supreme reality, god not the puranic shiva.
Parvatha Mountain
Praanalingi Fourth stage in the development of a devotee, where he feels his breath itself is linga.
Pramatha First guru, in other word, a guru who does not have any guru he himself is the self made guru.
Pranalingi 4th stage of shatasthala of lingayath religion
Prasaadi Third stage in the development of a devotee where he feels the whole creation is prasaada or sacred offering. The word literally means a happy state of mind.
Prasada Each and everything avaialble to humans from god is called as prasada in lingayat philosphy. Food afer got the grace of the god.
Prasadi 3rd stage of shatsthala of lingayath religion.
Punya Credit of good deeds
Purana Scriptures of past history which has moral ethics
Purusharthas Four goals set to hindu, goals to be achieved by a hindu through four mediums of moral deeds dharma, artha, kama and moksha
Raavana The antagonist in the epic ramayana.
Rahu Mythological demon who causes eclipse by swallowing the sun and the moon.
Romaja Literally 'one born of hair.'a saint.
Rudraksha Literally 'eye of rudra' a sacred bead.
Rudrakshi Instrument used meditation (japa) and wear on body in the form of garland
Samarasya Union, linging in harmony
Samayaachaari A spiritually experienced person who is beyond all restrictions of caste and creed.
Samsara Stage of family life. Worldly life
Samskaras Consecration
Sanaka Son conceived through the mind of brahma. Sanaka is supposed to be forever young.
Sananda Son conceived through the mind of brahma. Sanaka is supposed to be forever young. Sanjeevana
Sannihita A stage, in which devotee realize that god is within self and his every deed is for god only
Sanyasa Stage of hermitage.
Sethu Raameshwara A pilgrimage centre in tamilnaadu.
Shadakshari A mantra with six syllables, om namah shivaya.
Shaktivishishtadvaita A special doctrine about the reality of lingayath, different from all the others
Shaktivishishtadvaita Lingayathism philosophy of individual, god and world special no-dualistic philosophy propagated by basaveshwara.
Sharana A male devotee of god, who has attained higher order by joining lingayathism and surrendering himself to god.
Sharana Literally means one who has submitted himself. Fifth stage in the development of a devotee where he develops qualities of submission and firmness of faith.
Sharane A female devotee of god, who has attained higher order by joining lingayathism and surrendering herself to god.
Shastra Divine document under hindu culture.
Shatarudriya Yaaga One hundred fire rituals offered to shiva .
Shatsthala Six avenues of attainment for a lingayath
Shatsthala Six stages in the development-bhakta, mahesha, prasaadi, praanalingi, sharana and aikya.
Shibi An emperor who saved a pigeon when vishnu came hunting for it in the guise of a hunter. Shibi offered his own life to save the bird.
Shoodra Fourth and lowest category of people under hindu religion, who are to do only menial jobs, untouchable.
Shrishaila Mallinaatha Presiding deity of shrishaila.
Shunya Peetha A seat of presiding deity of anubhava mantapa, allamaprabhu was first president.
Sindhu Ballala A king, devotee of shiva. Shiva begged for his wife and the king offered; shiva fed on her breasts like an infant.
Siriyala And Chengale Devotee couple from tamilnadu. They showed devotion by killing and cooking their only son when shiva appeared in the guise of jangama and asked for it.
Sita Wife of rama.
Six Enemies Lust, anger, avarice, obsessive desire, arrogance, jealousy.
Sixteen Services Sixteen ways of doing homage to idols or showing civility-aasana, svaagata, paadya, arghya, aachamaniya, madhuparka, aachamana, snaana, vasana, aabharana, sugandha, sumanas, dhupa, dipa, naivedya, vandana.
Soham Sanskrit phrase which means 'i am that'; 'daasoham' sanskrit phrase which means 'i am a servant'. Here the writer is playing on the similarity of sounds of these two words.
Sriyaala Changale Devotee couple from tamilnaadu who offered their only son as food to shiva.
Sthavara Immovable, fixed; the installed linga.
Sthavaralinga A finely polished stone oval shaped with flat bottom, attached permanently to the ground in a temple, symbol of lord shiva.
Sutaka Impediment
Swayata State of mind in which an individual realize the soul through worship of istalinga
Tambula Offering of beetle leaves, nuts and coconut to guests as mark of love and respect.
Tanu Body
Ten Vices Pleasure, drunkenness, lechery, sleeping by day, gambling, hunting, song, play, unnecessary travel, fault finding.
The Three Refers to various sets of ideas in three-three qualities, the complex of body, mind and wealth, guru-linga-jangama, three kinds of daasoha etc., the meaning can be inferred through the context.
Thilaka A straight-line mark on the forehead.
Three Bodies Kaaya traya-gross, subtle and causal bodies.
Three Desires, Longings Eshana traya-longing for money, longing for woman, longing for a son.
Three Letters A, u and m which together form om.
Three Qualities Tri-guna-satva, rajas and tamas. Quiet, active and lethargic.
Trividha Daasoha Three kinds of offering, the offering of the body, mind and wealth.
Twenty Five Principles Five principles related to gross body, seventeen principles related to subtle body, three principles related to causal body.
Upanayana A religious ceremony among brahmins, which is also known as thread ceremony, where under a brahmin boy, is religiously inducted by putting a thread on his body.
Upanishad Scriptures which define vedas in better understand way and with instances.
Vaalmiki Arishi who was earlier a hunter; the author of ramayana.
Vaamana Arishi by name vamana refused to eat in the house of an untouchable and hence took birth as a dog in the house of haavinahaala kallayya.
Vaamana Muni Legend of a rishi by name vamana refused to eat in the house of an untouchable and hence took birth as a dog in the house of haavinahaala kallayya.
Vachana A special type of literature, poetical verses as oath of very high moralities, basic literature of lingayath religion, written in simple kannada language, formulated by various sharanas and sharanes on their own experience knowledge (anubhava)
Vahana Vehicle
Vaishnavism Cult of followers of vishnu
Vaishya Third category of people under hindu religion who do business and trading.
Varna Class status of a hindu.
Varnashrama Classification of human beings into four categories of brahmana, kshatriya, vaishya and shudra under hindu religion.
Varuna God of rain
Varuna God of wealth and rains.
Vasishtha One of the seven rishis.
Vasudaivakutumbakam Entire world is one family - A concept of hindu religion.
Vayu Air
Veda Basic and ancient scripture of hinduism.
Veerakta A person in state of celibacy, a unique category created after the life time guru basaveshvara, higher then devotee and lesser then the modified guru.
Veerashaiva A sect which was existing before basaveshvara. Derived from shaivism.
Vibhuti Ash used to perform puja
Vibhuti Sacred ash.
Virupaksha Presiding deity of hampi, the capital of vijayanagara empire; now in bellary district, karnataka.
Vishistadvaita Special doctrine of lingayath, differ from all others.
Vishnu One of the three generator, organizer and destroyer, according to hindu
Vishva Guru Universal preceptor, teacher
Vishwa Dharama Cosmopolitan religion
Vyaalesha Mythological, 'primordial serpent' that holds up the earth, and on which god vishnu sleeps.
Vyaasa Born to parashara and matsyagandhi, a fisher woman who rowed boats; the author of mahabharata.
Yajna A ceremony of invoking god by fire.
Yajur Veda One if the four veda's of hindu scripture
Yama The deity have responsibilities of distributing rewards as per deeds (of hindu)
Yekka, Ekka A plant Giant Milkweed (Calotropis gigantea), an Aak Plant, Giant calotrope
Yoga Union. Oneness. The medium of attainment of salvation through hindu ethics.
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