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Gangamma (ಗಂಗಮ್ಮ)

Full Name: Hadaradakayakada Maarayyagala Punyastree Gangamma
Pen Name (Vachana Signature): Gangeshwara

All kaayaka is one kaayaka..
One vow is as good as another.
If you escape deceit, there is no death.
If you escape vow there is no union.
If you unite like the cuckoo and a crow
then, it’s for sure great hell
O Gangeshwaralinga.
[Vachana No.1374] [1]

Hadaradakayakada Maarayyagala Punyastree Gangamma was wife of Marayya. Only one of her vachanas has been found with the signature Gangeshwara.

Gañgamma is the wife of Mārayya. Before she came under the influence of Basavanna and other Sharanas, she might have been a prostitute by profession. Since she had taken to prostitution in order to eke out her livelihood, she found no meanness in her profession. If one could sublimate one's passion for worldly pleasures, one would be treated on a par with other devotees. According to Gangamma, all Kāyakas and all Vratas are equal none is high, none low. She says: “Whatever be the Kāyaka a devotee pursues, it makes no difference.” Regarding the righteous ones joining the unrighteous ones, she says, “If the faithful in vow join the faithless, they are sure to go to hell, since their union is the union of the ill-matched ones, like that of a peacock and a crow”. Like other women writers, Gangamma too emphasizes the importance of Vrata and its observance. Her Vachana signature is Gangeswara.


[1] "VACHANA" English Version Translation by: O.L. Nagabhushana Swamy, ISBN: 978-93-81457-12-2, 2012, Pub: Basava Samithi, Basava Bhavana Benguluru 560001.

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